Lettuce Discuss… What are Antioxidants?

IMG_4444

Antioxidants are phytochemicals. These are natural chemicals that are great for promoting health and well being in your body. They offer unique properties that help to maintain healthy cells.

Phytochemicals are non-nutritional chemicals found in plants. They have protective and disease preventing (not curing) properties.  Plants produce these chemicals to protect themselves, however these chemicals can also reduce the risk of diseases in humans. There are over a thousand known phytochemicals, the most common ones are found in Tomatoes (Lycopene), in fruits and berries (Flavanoids) and in soy (Isoflavinoids). These are all antioxidants. But before we get into antioxidants we need to understand what a “free Radical” is.

Free Radicals.

Simply free radicals are chemicals that are formed naturally in our body that have the potential to harm or damage our cells. In normal cellular functions they play an important role. However in large concentrations they can become hazardous to our bodies and cause damage to DNA, Cells, Proteins and Cell membranes. This can be caused by environmental toxins including and not limited too cigarette’s, metals, high oxygen atmospheres, and ionizing radiation (x-rays entering the atmosphere from space and exposure to radiation). These can increase the risk of cancer, heart disease and other diseases.

Antioxidants.

Antioxidants neutralize free radicals. The Antioxidants interact with the free radicals and prevent them causing any harm. The body does make its own antioxidants in small doses, these are called “endogenous”. Which simply means they are produced inside the cell or organism. However, the body really relies on the “exogenous” (externally produced), antioxidants to obtain what it needs. These are called dietary antioxidants and are found in higher concentrations in dietary supplements.

Summary:

Free Radicals in large concentrations can cause damage to cells, cell membranes and proteins within our body. Antioxidants interact with the free radicals and neutralize them rendering them harmless.

Follow this link for more information http://www.phytochemicals.info/antioxidants.php

We at Lettuce Discuss… use a daily supplement to top up our intake of Antioxidants.

Our preferred supplement is from Biovea and is called “Berry Powder Blend”.

 BioveaTub

Click Image or Follow Link.  http://www.biovea.com/uk/product_detail.aspx?PID=1753&OS=204&KW=berry%20powder&cp=4&NAME=BERRY-POWDER-BLEND-Organic-Strawberry-442g

It makes a nice refreshing drink of a morning when you mix the powder with water. Organic Berry Powder Blend is an organic, blend of 12 fresh freeze-dried berries (including whole berries, seeds and juice). It is Fresh Freeze Dried and it is a Rich source of Natural Antioxidants. It tastes great and mixes easily without residue or after taste unlike so many other supplements. It is also Gluten Free, Organic, Vegan, Vegetarian, Alcohol Free

Ingredients:

Serving Size: 1 level scoop (9.8g)

Servings Per Container: 45

Amount Per Serving:

  • Organic Berry Blend: 1000mg

Containing Organic Maqui Berry(Aristotelia Chilensis), Organic Acerola Berry (Malpighia Punicifolia), Organic Blackberry(Rubus Fruticosus), Organic Blueberry(Vaccinium Angustifolium), Organic Strawberry (Fragaria Virginiana), Organic Goji Berry (Lycium Barbarum), Organic Raspberry(Rubus Idaeus), Organic Cranberry(Vaccinium Oxycoccos), Organic Yum Berry(Myrica Rubra), Organic Black Currant (Ribes Nigrum), Organic Bilberry(Vaccinium Myrtillus), Organic Lingonberry(Vaccinium Vitis-idaea), Organic Aronia Berry (Aronia Melanocarpa), Organic Concord Grape Fruit Juice Pwd. (Vitis Labrusca), and Organic Pomegranate Fruit Juice Pwd. (Punica Granatum) • Organic Stevia Leaf Extract 20 mg

Other Ingredients: Organic Cane Sugar, Organic Arabic Gum, Organic Strawberry Flavouring, and Citric Acid.

Further Reading

Phytochemicals: Antioxidants

http://www.phytochemicals.info/antioxidants.php

Free radicals

http://www.healthchecksystems.com/antioxid.htm

Stevia

http://www.livescience.com/39601-stevia-facts-safety.html

Biovea, BERRY POWDER BLEND (Organic -Strawberry) 442g 

http://www.biovea.com/uk/product_detail.aspx?PID=1753&OS=204&KW=berry%20powder&cp=4&NAME=BERRY-POWDER-BLEND-Organic-Strawberry-442g

Disclaimer

(Phytochemicals / Antioxidants are not a cure for cancer or heart disease. We have found no medical trials that suggest that Antioxidants will cure heart disease or cancer. We have only found commentaries suggesting that they will reduce the risk and help maintain a healthy body. There is no replacement for a well balanced diet. If in doubt visit your health care professional.)

Many Blessings

Mako & Hema

Lettuce Discuss… The Health Benefits of Beetroots

beetroot

Lettuce Discuss… the health benefits of Beetroots

 The little red vegetable that packs a punch of goodness!

The beetroot contains 20 times more nitrates than any other vegetable.

Beetroots contain sodium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorous all beneficial minerals for the body,

Beetroot juice is a rich source of natural sugar and is considered one of the best in vegetable juices as it contains potassium, sodium, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus, iodine, chlorine, copper, vitamins B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), C. Although rich in digestible carbohydrates, the juice is low in calorie content and has good amount of proteins and amino acids.

Beetroot contains Folic Acid: This is important in cell division and growth. Children and adults need folic acid to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia.

Cleanses the Colon, Strengthens your gall bladder, and liver: Eating the beetroot naturally de-stresses the colon, you may have more bowel movements after eating but this is natural. It supports and strengthens the liver and gall bladder too. Removing stress from both organs.

Cleanses Your Blood: Removes the toxins from your blood as it is a great anti oxidant!

It Boosts your immunity: Encourages the bodies’ natural immune system! (This is especially important for people who battle autoimmune disorders- Autoimmune disorders are by definition, your own cells attach itself. However eating or juicing 2-3 times a week will put your body back into balance, healing itself rather then on the attack)

Fights Cancer: Betacyanin, the pigment that gives beetroot its velvet deep color, is an antioxidant that possesses anti-cancer properties. In 2011, a study carried out by Howard University in Washington, USA,  found that betacyanin slowed tumor growth by 12.5 percent when exposed to prostate and breast cancer cells.

Heal Acne: The great number of anthocyanins within beetroot, has a positive impact on the condition of skin and hair. Beets can improve complexion, reduce inflammation, help with dry skin, reduces freckles and age spots and makes your skin younger looking just by drinking the juice is sufficient. However, it can be rubbed directly on to the skin -it may stain a little so its best if you are not on your way out. The stain naturally gets absorbed into your skin.

Beetroots can Eliminate and Prevent Cellulite: Take 3 medium beetroots and grate them, to this add 3 tablespoons of honey (Raw is best) and 1 tsp ground black pepper.  Place the mixture onto the areas to be treated and then wrap over the area with cellophane. Leave in place for 30 to 40 minutes and rinse it all off.  If you then repeat this once a week your skin will become smooth and visible signs of cellulite will disappear.

Beetroot can be used as a Facial Toner: Mix one beet with 1/2 cup chopped cabbage and ¼ cup of water. Blend them together really well so they will sit in an ice cube tray. Freeze the cubes in the freezer. Any time you feel you need to rejuvenate your skin, rub one ice cube over your face. It will feel fresh and rejuvenated. (Best to do before bedtime to allow the stain to naturally absorb).

Beetroot is a Great source of iron: Iron is used in the body for many reasons but mainly for carrying oxygen to the blood cells. Approximately 2/3 of iron in the body is found in hemoglobin (the red protein found in blood).

Beetroot Protects against Heart Disease:Nitrates lower blood pressure because bacteria in the mouth and gut convert it into the gas nitric oxide, which relaxes and widens the blood vessels, allowing blood to circulate more freely. (This natural process may help with headaches and migraines, by allowing the blood to flow).

Lowers blood pressure: A 2010 study carried out by Queen Mary’s University in London found that drinking just one 1 cup (US) or 250 ml (EU) of beetroot juice a day dramatically lowered blood pressure for several hours.

Treats and cures boils and abscesses: By drinking the juice or eating the vegetable, in addition, you can apply it directly to the infected area too by cutting the beetroot and rubbing it on. (Make sure to dispose the used beetroot into the trash after applying to the skin).

Full of fiber: Fiber is an important part of a healthy diet. A diet high in fiber has many health benefits. It can help prevent heart disease, diabetes, weight gain, some cancers, and can also improve digestive health.

It may be a small vegetable but it does pack a lot in!

We will add a recipe for juicing and a soup next!

Many blessings

Mako and Hema

Lettuce Discuss… The Mighty Lime.

The Mighty Lime

The Mighty Lime

What are Limes good for?

Respiratory Disorders: The flavonoid-rich oil obtained from lime is used extensively in anti-congestive medicines such as balms, vaporizers, and inhalers due to the presence of Kaempferol (Kaempferol is a flavinoid that can also reduce lung cancer incidence). Just scratching the peel of a lime and inhaling it gives immediate relief for congestion and nausea.

 Heal mouth ulcers, digestive wounds and piles. The root cause of mouth ulcers and wounds in the digestive system is a vitamin C deficiency, because the lime is very high in Vitamin C and Flavanoids it helps heal ulcers and wounds in the digestive system and excretory system while providing relief from constipation, it eradicates all the root causes of piles. Flavonoids inhibit microbial growth and potassium and Flavonoids help heal ulcers and wounds.

 Rejuvenate the skin, reduce body odor and dandruff.  Limejuice and its natural oils are great for the skin when consumed internally or applied externally. By rejuvenating the skin it keeps the skin shiny, protecting it from infections and reducing body odor due to the presence of a large amount of vitamin-Cand Flavonoids. Both are class-1 anti oxidants, and have antibiotic and disinfectant properties. When applied directly to the skin, the acids scrub dead cells away, cures dandruff, rashes, bruises, and heals acne.

Help digestion, and ease constipation.The scent of the lime causes your mouth to water which aids primary digestion (releasing the digestive saliva in your mouth before you even taste it). The Lime acidity does the rest. The Flavonoids (the compounds found in the fragrant oils extracted from lime), stimulate the digestive system and increase production and secretion of digestive juices, bile and acids. The Flavonoids stimulate the peristaltic motion. The ample amount of acids in lime helps clear the excretory system by cleaning off the digestive tracts. The roughage present is also helpful in easing constipation, although the high acid content is the most beneficial source. An overdose of limejuice with salt also acts as an excellent purgative without any side effects, thereby relieving constipation effectively.

 Excellent for women’s health. Limes contain calcium and folate, these nutrients are important for post-menopausal women and women of child-bearing age. A single fresh lime contains 22 milligrams of calcium and over five micrograms of folate. This is a substantial amount for a small fruit. Lime peels can combat aging skin. The peel contains a melanin inhibitor. With age and UV ray exposure, melanin, which gives skin its pigment, can build up and appear as spots on your skin. Treating skin to a mask with bits of lime peel in it could reduce this hyper pigmentation.

 Regulates sugar absorption in diabetics.According to the American Diabetes Association, limes are considered a diabetes super food. The high levels of soluble fiber make it an ideal dietary aid and helps to regulate the body’s absorption of sugar into the bloodstream, this reduces the events of blood sugar spikes which are a serious risk to a diabetic. Limes have a low glycemic index, this means they will not cause unexpected spikes in glucose levels.

Protects the eye from aging and infection. The Vitamin-C anti oxidant properties protects the eyes from aging and macular degeneration. The flavonoids protect the eyes from infections. (Just by eating lime it protects) DO NOT put directly in your eye- it will hurt.

 Can aid in weight loss.A glass of warm water with a full lime’s worth of juice is an excellent weight reducer as well as a brilliant refresher and antioxidant drink. The citric acid in lime is an excellent fat burner. If you drink two glasses a day you will see results within a week.

Prevents heart disease.That same soluble fiber which can help diabetics maintain their blood sugar levels can also lower blood pressure and eliminate the presence of LDL cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol). The soluble fiber cuts down on inflammation of the blood vessels, this is known to be a preventative measure against heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes.

What is the Lime made up of.

Nutrients, (these are all daily values and are per 3 ½ ounces or 100g)

Dietry Fiber11%

Carbohydrates4%

Calories2%

Protein1%

Fat0%

Vitamins

Vitamin C48%

Thiamin2%

Folate2%

Vitamin B62%

Pantothenic Acid2%

Minerals

Calcium 3%

 Iron3%

Phospherous2%

Potassium3%

Copper3%

 There are many more uses for the little lime that we haven’t mentioned!

In short- It’s great for you! Make lime your friend!

Many Blessings!

Mako & Hema

Lettuce Discuss…Coconut Oil Benefits

Coconut Oil Benefits Blog

Coconut oil is strongly recommended for a number of benefits that are explained below. Using coconut oils has been shown to mildly help the following:

Alzheimers Treatment: the fatty acids in coconut oil can increase levels of ketone bodies (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625458) in the blood. This provides energy for the brain cells and can relieve symptoms in Alzheimers patients.

Bones: Improves the ability of our body to absorb important minerals. These include calcium and magnesium which are necessary for the development of bones. Thus, coconut oil is very useful to women who are prone to osteoporosis after middle age.

Dental care:Calcium is an important component of our teeth. Since coconut oil facilitates absorption of calcium by the body, it helps in developing strong teeth. Coconut oil also stops tooth decay.

Diabetes: Coconut oil helps in controlling blood sugar, and improves the secretion of insulin. It also promotes the effective utilization of blood glucose, thereby preventing and treating diabetes.

Improve Cholesterol Levels: Coconut oil is full of saturated fats, these raise the HDL (good for you) cholesterol. This is great for you over a long term it can reduce the risk of heart disease.

Kidney: Coconut oil helps in preventing kidney and gall bladder diseases. It also helps to dissolve kidney stones.

Lauric Acid: This can kill pathogens like bacteria, viruses and fungi thereby helping to prevent infections.

Liver: The presence of medium chain triglycerides and fatty acids helps in preventing liver diseases because those substances are easily converted into energy when they reach the liver, thus reducing the work load of the liver and also preventing accumulation of fat.

Lose Fat (the dangerous fat in your abominal cavity): Coconut oil reduces your appetite and increases the burning of fat, it makes sense that it can also help you to lose weight. Coconut oil appears to be very effective in burning abdominal fat, which lodges itself in the abdominal cavity and around organs. This fat is the most dangerous of all and is highly associated with Western diseases.

Pancreatitis: Coconut oil is also believed to be useful in treating pancreatitis.

Reduce Seizures:Coconut oil can increase blood concentration of ketone bodies, which can help reduce seizures in epileptic children.

Stress relief: Coconut oil is very soothing and hence it helps in removing stress. Applying coconut oil to the head, followed by a gentle massage, helps to eliminate mental fatigue.

Sunscreen and Moisturiser: Coconut oil can be used as a sunscreen directly applied to the skin it can reduce the harmful ultraviolet rays by up to 20%. It can also be used as a moisturiser and can protect hair against damage.

Thyroid Support: This is a support not a cure. It is beneficial for the healthy maintenance of your thyroid. See links below.

Weight Loss: Medium Chain triglycerides in the oil show an increase in the energy expenditure over a 24 hour period by as much as 5%. This can lead to huge weight loss over long term. Coconut oil can reduce your hunger, eating fewer calories helps with weight loss too.

I found these great sites on understanding the thyroid…

http://preventdisease.com/news/13/032113_Get-Off-Your-Thyroid-Medication-And-Start-Consuming-Coconut-Oil.shtml

http://www.naturalhealth365.com/food_news/coconut.html

http://www.drbrownstein.com/

Thank You and Bless You all

Mako and Hema

Lettuce Discuss… Natural Remedies for Athletes and Weight Loss

Herbal Supplements

Herbal Supplements

 Herbs for Athletes and Body Builders
 Herb Used For
Alfalfa Endurance, energy, contains almost all known vitamins and minerals
Barley Green Extremely rich in nutrients, build immune system, energy source
Energ-Y* Fight Fatigue, improve memory, increase resistance and stress
Fitness Plus* Strength, endurance, energy, athletic support
Ginseng (Siberian) Endurance, virility (especially for men), Fights Depression
Ginseng (wild American) Endurance, vitality (especially for women), Fights Depression
Master gland* Feeds all glands for peak performance
PLS II* Promote Healing and reduce pain from sprains, strains and broken bones
Safflowers Help eliminate uric/lactic acid buildup, reduce workout soreness
Sarsparilla Promote production of male hormones, hair growth
SXL* Nutritionally strengthen the entire structural system
Suma Meet the body’s increased nutritional needs during extensive workout
Target Endurance* Nutrition targeted to muscle cells, runners run further
Tei Fu Massage Lotion* Massage in after workout for soothing relief
Herbs for weight loss
Herb Used For
Chinese Thermo Chi Herbal weight loss program
Chinese Tiao he cleanse* Pre-diet tune up to help lose more efficiently
Kelp, Dandelion and Alfalfa Speed metabolism, nutritive, diuretic (can be bought as a supplement called THREE*)
Gotu Kola High in niacin (fights cellulite), brain food, energy
Skinny Formula* Cleanser, diuretic, parasites, help cravings and energy dips
Chickweed Dissolve fat, cholesterol cleaner
Licorice root Support Adrenals, balance blood sugar, reduce cravings
Nutri-Calm* Fight dieters irritability, soothing vitamins, minerals and herbs, this also has a calming affect should only be taken of a night
Spirulina Energy, help in between meal droop, nutritious
LBS II* Clean old waste accumulation in the bowel
AS with Gymnema* Provides the feeling of fullness, helps depress appetite
Glandiet supplement* Vitamins, minerals, herbs for your body
 Fenugreek Fat Metaboliser, helps with blood sugar also cancer fighting. (capsules and Tea can be found at Whole Foods)
Black Walnut Hull Healthy metabolism, balances blood sugar, body weight control, cholesterol control, systemic support during weight loss
Turkey Rhubarb Antioxidant, speeds up metabolism
 Fennel  Diuretic, reduces intestinal bloating
Moringa Oleifera Controls cholesterol, reduces wrinkles and fine lines, promotes normal liver and kidney function, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, promotes proper digestion, provides energy
*these supplements can be found on Natures Sunshine website , we use and trust this brand, however you can find these anywhere. We would advise you to research the companies before you buy -as we do.
Bless You and Many thanks for your support.
Mako and Hema

If you have any comments or questions please ask..

Lettuce Discuss… Historical use for single herbs

Historical use for single herbs

Historical Use for single Herbs

Herb                                                                       Used For

Alfalfa Health builder, arthritis, fatigue, appetite, pituitary gland
Barley greens Energy, nutritive immune builder
Bee pollen Allergies, quick energy, slows down ageing,
Black cohosh Natural estrogen, hot flashes, nerves, anxiety, depression,
Black walnut Cleanse parasites and worms, skin rashes, lupus
Black walnut extract Herpes, ring worm, impetigo, rebuilding tooth enamel
Blessed thistle Bring oxygen to the brain, senility, increase breast milk
Burdock Reduce swelling and deposits in joints, blood purifier, gout, eczema
Butchers broom Improve circulation, phlebitis, leg cramps, varicose veins
Capsicum Circulation to extremities, strokes, blood pressure equaliser, colds
Cascara sagrada Constipation, increase peristaltic action, gall bladder support
Catnip Colic, nerves, cigarette craving, colds, flu, digestion, hiccups, gas
Chamomile Insomnia, improve appetite, drug withdrawal, nerves
Charcoal Help remove toxins, poisons, pollutants, bacteria, chemicals
Chickweed Appetite depressant, burn fat, dissolve plaque from veins
Comfrey leaf Bone builder, tissue healer, pulled tendon, bruises
Cornsilk Kidney, bladder, bed wetting, painful urination, prostate
Damiana Hormone balance, Parkinson’s disease, infertility, frigidity
Dandelion Anaemia, liver, blood cleanser, endurance, age spots, hepatitis
Dong quai Hot flashes, hormone balance, nerves, muscle spasms
Echinacea Antibiotic, lymph system, blood purifier/builder, immune system
Eyebright Failing vision, eye inflammation, styles, eye strain, hay fever.
False unicorn Help prevent miscarriage, male/female glandular problems
Feverfew Migraine, headaches, muscular tension (side effect in a small percentage, causes depression)
Garlic Normalises blood pressure, yeast, bacterial and viral infections, colds, flu
Ginger Gas, motion and morning sickness, flu, diarrhoea, indegestion, headache, settles stomach
Golden seal root Infection, natural insulin, urinary cleanse
Gotu kola Brain food, memory, vitality, depression, senility, nerve food
Hawthorn Heart wall, heart health, hardening of the arteries, adrenals, stress, blood pressure
Hops Insomnia, nervousness, hyperactive children, decrease alcoholic cravings
Horsetail Hair loss, diuretic, weak nails, helps calcium absorbtion
Hydrangea Arthritis, gout, kidney and bladder problems, dissolves stones
Juniper berries Feeds pancreas and adrenals, diuretic, dropsy and uric acid
Kelp Thyroid, goitre, food for all glands, hair loss, cleanse radiation from the body
Licorice Adjust blood sugar, quick energy, cough, hoarseness, feeds adrenals
Lobelia Asthma, congestion, pneumonia, pleurisy, strong relaxant
Marshmallow Bladder and kidney problems, bed wetting, inflamation
Mullein Nervous cough, lung and sinus congestion, tuberculosis
Parsley Bad breath, blood builder, kidneys, diuretic, strengthen eyes
Passion flower Eye infection and tension, stress, headache, sleep
Paul d’arco Used for cancer, leukaemia, tumours, yeast infection
Psyllium hulls Constipation, add bulk and softness to stool, absorb toxins
Red clover Used for cancer, tumours, skin problems, nerve food
Red raspberry Overall female tonic, childbirth, nausea, diarrhoea
Rose hips Natural vitamin C, colds, flu, infection, blood purifier
Safflowers Muscle soreness, gout, digestion, help reduce cholesterol
Sage Dry up breast milk, night sweats, worms, sore gums/throat, grey hair
Sarsaparilla Help body make male hormones, body building, impotency
Saw palmetto Infertility, help weight gain, throat and bronchial problems
Scullcap Epilepsy, restlessness, nerve and muscle spasms, convulsions
Slippery elm Ulcers, acid stomach, soothe irritated mucous membranes
Uva ursi Spleen, bladder and kidney infections, cystitis, gonorrhoea, diabetes
Valerian Natural tranquilliser, pain, muscle spasms, nerves, promotes sleep
White oak bark Hemorrhoids, varicose veins, pyorrhoea, stops bleeding
Yarrow Obstructed perspiration, nosebleeds, chicken pox, colds/fever/flu
Yellow dock Anaemia, blood purifier, acne, liver, hepatitis, skin problems
Yucca Natural cortisone, arthritis, joint inflammation, anti stress, digestion

If you have any questions please leave a comment or email us directly.

Bless you all and many thanks,

Mako and Hema

Lettuce Discuss… Tea and Healing benefits

Tea

TEA
Condition Solution
nervous system, vascular system Good Circulation Tea by: “Gods Garden Pharmacy”
headache and or migraines Ginger Tea+ Chamomile Tea  or Spearmint Tea or Lemon Balm Tea (warm Mango Juice also helps), Kava Kava,
stomach ache, gas, heartburn Ginger Tea or Pure Ginger in warm water
sadness Spearmint Tea
detox, skin, anti-inflammatory Green Tea
colds Echinacea and or Cold Season Tea by: “Gods Garden Pharmacy”
Kidney, bladder, prostate, asthma, diabetes, lowering cholesterol, (DONOT take if pregnant or BREAST FEEDING) Alfalfa Tea, Fennel Tea,
metabolism Good Metabolism Tea by: “Gods Garden Pharmacy”
thyroid, high blood pressure, bug bites, sores, tumors, alzheimer’s, anxiety, sleep problems, restlessness, menstrual cramps, headaches, colic blotting, intestinal gas, up-set stomach, gas Lemon Balm Tea By: “Gods Garden Pharmacy”  (I found this TEA at Sprouts Markets)
memory enhancement, sickness, pms, age related eye disorders Ginkgo Biloba Tea
prevent colds and flu Ginseng Tea, Elderflower Tea
relaxing, sleep problems Valerian Root Tea
hormonal – Woman’s Balance Women’s for Harmony & Balance By: Herbal Cup, Ayurvedic Balanced Tea. (it has Shatvari, Cassia, Fennel, & Dandelion)
Yogi Teas are great also!!!
ovulation Jasmine Tea
increase iron, calcium and silica Nettle Tea
anxiety, stress, arthritis pain, muscle pain, migraine, general pain relief  Kava Kava,